Advantages of Bacterial Ghosts (BGs)




  • BGs are not alive and pose no pathogenic threat.
  • BGs present no hazard of horizontal gene transfer.
  • BGs do not belong to genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs).
  • BGs do not require the addition of adjuvants.



  • BGs are produced by fermentation.
  • Compared to conventional vaccines, BGs are produced rapidly and cost-effectively.



  • BGs contain the natural surface components of Gram-negative bacteria.
  • BGs maintain the immunogenicity of recombinant antigens.
  • BGs can be lyophilized and remain stable at ambient temperature for several years.
  • Contrary to conventional vaccines, BGs do not require cooling.

Administration & Immunogenicity


  • BGs are ideally suited for mucosal, needle-free immunization.
  • BGs are natural adjuvants.
  • BG vaccines generate a strong immune response in the recipient.



  • BGs can be generated from a variety of Gram-negative bacteria.
  • BG subunit vaccines include protein and/or DNA antigens.
  • BGs offer a one step production process for subunit vaccines.
  • The BG vaccine platform is ideally suited for the development of vaccines against new antigens.
Last update: waiting for actual data ...